The processing technology of four kinds of wild vegetables in Dabie mountain area

November 05, 2019

Located in the famous southern Dabie Mountains, Luotian County, Hubei Province boasts abundant rainfall and favorable climate. There are more than 14,900 hm2 of lush natural secondary forests and shrub vegetation. The forest naturally grows many traditional edible edible vegetables that are popular among local people. There are the following:
1. Vegetables: A perennial herb of the genus Pteridaceae. It is often eaten with unextended young leaves of the year. Commonly known as Ruyi food, fern soup.
2. Nepeta: Nepeta is a perennial herb of the genus Nepeta. It is often eaten with its stems and leaves.
3. Bitter herbs: It is a perennial herb of the genus Patrinia, which is named because of its slight taste. Eat it regularly when it grows young leaves.
4. Water celery: It is a perennial herb of the genus Cinnamomum. It is often eaten as its young stems and leaves.
These wild vegetables often grow in remote mountains and forests, etc., grow and multiply in suitable natural conditions, and are not polluted by pesticides, chemical fertilizers, sewage, waste water, etc., and are called “green foods”. Not only is it more nutritious and unique in flavor than cultivated vegetables, it also has certain medicinal health care value. For example, Yancai has the effects of heat-relieving, gas-reducing, phlegm-removing, and expelling winds, while water celery has the effects of antipyretic, hypotoxic, diuretic, hemostatic and antihypertensive effects. The harvest season of these 4 kinds of wild herbs is from March to May, and it is seasonally strong. It is limited to traffic and processing storage capacity and is only 1% to 2% of fresh food for people. Most of them are not used. With the improvement of people’s living standards and scientific and cultural standards, the demand for wild, non-polluting and delicious green foods in the international and domestic markets has increased rapidly. These wild herbs, which enjoy “shanzhen” quality, are processed into long-term preservation and long-distance transportation. Products are beneficial to the country’s people’s affairs.
According to the histological and nutritional characteristics of the four wild herbs, the following processing techniques should be adopted.
One, frozen
(1) Process selection and treatment of raw materials - blanching, rinsing - finishing, packing, draining - pre-cooling - freezing - hanging ice - packaging, storage.
(II) Operational points 1. Raw material selection and treatment: Select young, fresh, stout, wild, wild vegetables, clean dirt, impurities, etc. 2. Blanching and rinsing: blanching in 0.2% zinc gluconate boiling water solution. The fern is 2~3min, and the time of Nepeta and water celery is a little shorter, while the bitter must take a little longer to fully remove its bitterness. After the blanching, the softness of the wild vegetables was used instead of the degree of blandness. If necessary, 0.5% citric acid was added to adjust the pH to 6.0. After blanching, quickly rinse with cold water and cool to room temperature. 3. Finishing, packing, draining: after cooling the wild vegetables to remove the older part of the lower stem, Yan Cai should go to the net scales on the leaves and wash the surface mucus, technical specifications, neat weight code into the bottom hole Freeze the pan and drain. 4. Pre-cooling and freezing: The wild vegetables are pre-cooled to 0°C, and the freezing temperature is -18°C in a freezer at -30°C. 5. Hanging the ice coat: The frozen wild vegetables are picked up from the pan and put into 10°C water to dip them slightly so that the surface is covered with a thin and even layer of ice. 6. Packing and Storage: Use polyethylene bags to bag, seal and pack, and quickly transfer to below -18°C for storage.
Second, the tank
(1) Process flow Raw material sorting, processing - precooking, rinsing - canning, pouring soup - venting, sealing - sterilization, cooling - inspection, finished products.
(b) Operational points

1. Raw material sorting and treatment: Select fresh young wild vegetables, rinse with clean water, drain, and whole.

2. Precooking and rinsing: The treated raw materials are poured into a concentration of 0.2%, and the pH 5.0 of the zinc chloride boiling solution for 3 to 5 minutes, inactivate the enzyme, protect the color, and soften. Nepeta, water celery, use a little shorter, then soaked with running water, rinse, cooling, leeks should be cleaned on the surface brown scales and surface mucus.

3. Canning and adding soup: Raw materials are filled into 500g jars according to grade. The soup contains 0.15% of citric acid, 1% of salt, and 20.1% of CaCl. The solution is boiled and filtered at 80°C or more.

4. Exhaust, seal: hot exhaust, sealed at a temperature above 80°C.

5. Sterilization, cooling: Sterilization type is 5'~25'~15'/100°C, sub-stage cooling to 37°C.
6. Inspection, Finished Products: The finished product is sent to a 25°C~28°C heat preservation warehouse for 5~7 days for heat preservation, during which sampling inspections are performed to eliminate unqualified products. After the incubation, the samples were taken for inspection of bacteria and physicochemical indicators. After passing the tests, they were labeled, packed and stored.
Third, dry
(I) Process Selection and processing of raw materials - baking and drying - softening, grading - briquetting - pest control - packaging - storage of finished products.
(b) Operational points

1. Raw material selection and treatment: Select fresh, disease-free infestation of wild vegetables, wash the impurities in running water, drain, and boil for 5~8min in a mixture of 0.2%~0.5% citric acid and 0.2% sodium metabisulfite to inactivate enzyme and protect Color, sterilization, and then rinse with water, cooling, vegetables should also remove scales and mucus.

2. Baking and drying: The temperature in the early stage of drying is 45°C~50°C, and the temperature in the later stage is about 60°C. The drying room should be ventilated, wet, and reduced relative humidity in order to facilitate drying. During the drying process, the location of the baking tray should be reversed at any time, and pay attention to turning the raw materials to obtain a product with the same degree of dryness.

3. Softening and grading: The wild vegetables after the drying room are transferred into a closed room or container and softened for 1~3 days so that the water content of the raw materials is the same and the texture is slightly weak, and the product is graded according to the color and length of the product.

4. Briquetting: According to product level and packaging requirements, artificial or machine briquetting is used. The briquetting machine pressure is generally about 70kg/cm2, and it is maintained for 1~3min. If it is easy to cause crushing, spray suitable hot steam before the briquetting.

5. Insect repellent treatment: Dry products are easy to damage insects and insects, and before the briquetting, fumigation and insecticide can be performed with methyl bromide. Residues of pesticides used must not exceed national standards.

6. Packing and storage: Sealed with polyethylene plastic bag, boxed, stored in the temperature of 2 °C ~ 10 °C, relative humidity of 65% or less in the warehouse, protected from light.

The above three kinds of technologies are concise, practical, and cost-effective. Individual households or small businesses can choose one or all of their technologies for production, so that the resources of the Dabie Mountains can be used to their full potential.

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