High-yielding cultivation techniques of Pleurotus zhenxiu

January 12, 2020

Xiu Zhen mushroom crisp texture, sweet and refreshing, nutrient-rich, rich in protein, polysaccharides, vitamins, trace elements and the body's 8 kinds of amino acids, popular with consumers. Its high-yielding cultivation techniques are now described as follows:

First, the cultivation season. Pleurotus genus is a medium-high temperature type edible mushroom. In general, the local temperature does not exceed 28°C during the bacterial bag inoculation stage, and the local temperature during the mushrooming stage is not lower than 12°C. The Jieyang area of ​​Guangdong Province can be inoculated with bacterial bags in September and opened bags in the month of November.

Second, the medium preparation. Xiu Zhen mushroom has wide adaptability, strong resistance, and a wide range of raw materials, but it cannot use rain-dried, rotten and fermented raw materials. According to the biological characteristics of Pleurotus eryngii, the carbon-nitrogen ratio of the culture medium is controlled at 20-30:1, the water content is 60-65%, and the pH value is between 6-6.5. Commonly used medium formulations are:

Formula (1): 50% comminuted corn cob, 28% soybean husk, 17% wheat husk, 2% calcium carbonate, 2% gypsum powder, 1% sucrose

Formulation (2): 40% cotton seed hull, 40% sugarcane bagasse, 18% wheat husk, 2% light calcium carbonate

Formulation (3): 30% cotton seed hull, 10% wheat husk, 20% straight mash, 38% wood dust, 2% light calcium carbonate.

In the preparation, according to the proportion of the selected formula used to weigh, after mixing, and then 65% water content and mix well with water.

Third, bagging sterilization. Bag sterilization can physically change the lignin and cellulose structure of the culture medium, which is conducive to the decomposition and absorption of hyphae and can shorten the tide period. Use a polypropylene plastic bag with a size of 17 cm (38 cm) and 0.05 cm (0.5 cm). Each bag contains 1.1-1.15 kilograms of wet material (approx. 0.5 kg of dry material). The bag should be tightly packed and the bag mouth should be made of plastic collar tampon. Disinfection on the day of bagging, sterilization should be thorough, atmospheric pressure sterilization requires steam for a period of 12-14 hours at 100°C, autoclaving requires a steam temperature of 125°C, and a pressure of 196,000 Pa for 1.5 hours After exhausting back to zero, then open the pan to remove the cooling.

Fourth, inoculation bacteria. When the temperature of the material in the bag falls to 28°C, the culture bag is moved into the inoculation room (box) and inoculated according to the aseptic procedure. When inoculated, pull out the tampon and insert it into the bag mouth. After the inoculation of bacteria bags into the culture room bacteria culture, the first 3 days of the incubation room temperature is controlled at 24-26 °C, after entering the fourth day, due to mycelial bacterial mycelial metabolism accelerated the temperature rise within the bag, this time should be The temperature of the culturing chamber was adjusted to 22-23°C. The stage of mycelium development does not require light, the indoor air must maintain circulation, and the indoor humidity should be controlled at 60-70%. Generally, the mycelium grows over 35 days after inoculation.

Fifth, fruiting management. The mushroom house should be selected in a well-ventilated and clean environment. Before mushrooming, the mushroom house should be pretreated, that is, copper sulfate and lime water should be sprayed on the walls, bed frames, and ground to make the mushroom house sterilize. Pre-moisture treatment before mushrooming, spraying water on the walls and channels of the mushroom house, so that the relative humidity in the mushroom house reaches 85-90%. Then the hyphae have been filled with bags, uniform and robust white hyphae, and have reached a physiologically mature and bacterial-infected bacterial bag and moved into a mushroom house. The bag is put on a rack or flatly overlapped, and the plastic bag at the end of the bag is put along The collar was cut off, then the cover film was taken during the day and the film was peeled off at midnight to artificially create a temperature difference stimulus of 8-12°C to promote primordial differentiation. Mushroom phase mushroom house should be sprayed, spray fine mushroom water (ground watering and aerial spray, but to avoid spraying water to the bag mouth), to maintain the relative humidity of the mushroom room at 85-95%, too dry ( Below 70%) The growth of unfavorable fruit bodies, too wet (greater than 95%) will cause breeding of germs and rotten mushrooms. During the growth of fruiting bodies, the temperature is preferably controlled between 18-22°C. If the temperature is lower than 15°C, it will be difficult to form mushroom buds; when it is higher than 25°C, it is necessary to cover the shades above the mushroom shed to cool down. Mushroom ventilation is beneficial to the growth of fruiting bodies. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the mushroom house should be suitable for the feeling of no chest tightness. At the same time, a small amount of natural scattered light should be given every day during the growth of the fruit body, but direct sunlight should be avoided.

6. Harvesting and Turnover. When the cap is about 2.5 centimeters long, the edge of the cap is rolled up, and the spores have not yet been ejected before harvesting. The mushroom should be harvested once, and the fruit body should be kept intact when harvesting. After picking, it should be promptly arranged, and the mushroom house should be cleaned up. The main mycorrhiza and the undifferentiated primordium and dead mushroom are mainly scraped off. This work should be completed on the day after the mushroom harvesting. After the treatment, the water spray should be suspended directly to the material surface. Only the road and space of the mushroom house should be sprayed to maintain the relative humidity of the mushroom room at 70-80%. In this condition, the bacteria is kept for 3-7 days (the time of keeping the bacteria may depend on the temperature) to facilitate the growth of the lower tide mushroom. After this management, it turned into mushrooms.

VII. Pest control. In the course of cultivation, more inspections and diligent observations are required, and it is only possible to achieve high yields by eradicating pests and diseases at the initial stage of development.

1. Disease prevention and control: mainly mold. Mushroom high temperature, high humidity, poor ventilation and other factors are the main cause of mold. To prevent mold, we must pay attention to the ventilation of the mushroom house, adjust the temperature and humidity control of the mushroom house, once the mold, the mold can be used to remove the mold with a long mold or lime powder spread on the mold.

2. Insect pest control: Mainly mushrooms and maggots. Mushroom flies mainly harm the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus eryngii, control their larvae (fly maggots), and can stop the water properly to make the bed dry, so that fly maggots die due to lack of water; adult insects can use 5 grams of monosodium glutamate and 25 grams of sugar. Dichlorvos 0.25 ml, add 1000 ml of water, and mix and trap. Anthraquinones are mainly harmful to mycelia, and can be sprayed with 20% triclosan WP 800-1000 times.

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