Golden pear storage and preservation technology

October 05, 2019

1, storage technology points
1.1 timely harvesting gold pear in North China timely harvest period in September 20 to 30 days. At this point, the fruit has matured, accumulated nutrients, and has the best storage stability. Early harvest (September 10) Pear fruit has a high rotting rate throughout the storage period and the peel is easily browned. It was harvested late (in early October), and the occurrence of brown scalding was more serious (18.94%). During the harvesting process, special care must be taken to avoid bruising.
1.2 The purpose of graded fruit crystal grading is to achieve product standardization. There are four classification standards for pears in China: national standards, industry standards, local standards, and corporate standards. At present, the Golden Pear grading is mainly based on the weight of hand-selected, has not applied a large selection machine and other equipment for grading.
1.3 Packaging can be divided into outer packaging and inner packaging. Production and packaging are packed in cartons, each containing 15 to 20 kg. The cartons are scientific, sturdy, economical, moisture-proof, exquisite, and lightweight. In the inner packaging, the fruit is packaged with packaging materials (such as fresh-keeping paper, fresh-keeping bags, etc.). It has been proved by experiments that using a 0.013mm thick polyethylene film bag sealed with single fruit, the natural loss rate and rot rate are low, and the preservation effect is good. Although the film bag is too thick to reduce the natural loss rate, it can easily cause black heart disease and other physiological diseases. Therefore, the golden pear fruit must be directly sealed with a 0.013mm thick commercial plastic film bag after harvest and then packed.
1.4 Precooled gold pears have high temperature and storage temperature during harvesting. If storage pools (cellars) are used for natural cooling, the golden pears cannot be stored directly, but they must be fully precooled to quickly disperse field heat. Therefore, preheating should be performed at low temperatures as much as possible, and care should be taken to prevent sun and rain. The results show that the golden pear fruit can adapt to the rapid pre-cooling after harvest. Therefore, the fruits can be placed directly into the cold cold precooling after harvesting.
1.5 storage period management
1.5.1 In-house disinfection and prevention and control The disinfection of rodents has a positive effect on the reduction of microbial infection and fruit rot during storage of golden pears, and is also an important part of management measures. One month before (and after storage) the Golden Pears should be cleaned and disinfected. The commonly used agents are sulphur, formaldehyde, bleach and sodium hypochlorite. In addition, we should also pay attention to the prevention and treatment of rodents, plug a good hole, after the fruit can be put into storage can be used mouse traps, poisonous ear traps and other methods for prevention and treatment.
1.5.2 Weights After the golden pear fruit is transferred to the cold storage, the stacks in the warehouse must be arranged neatly and firmly to facilitate ventilation and management, and to make full use of space. Stack the bottom of the stack with a sleeper, and leave a proper gap (usually 2 to 5cm) between the boxes. The stacking height is determined by the compressive strength of the box, but the upper part of the stack must have a clearance of about 60 cm from the top of the stack. You must leave gaps (usually about 30cm) from walls, air intakes, etc., and leave roads. Stacking can be in the form of "character-shaped", "well-shaped" and other forms.
1.5.3 Temperature In order to better grasp temperature conditions in various parts of the library, thermometers should be placed in different representative locations. During the storage period, it is necessary to keep the temperature of the reservoir stable and reduce the fluctuation of the temperature. The temperature at which the pear is suitable for storage is 0 to 2°C.
1.5.4 Humidity During the storage of pears, the relative humidity should be kept between 85% and 90%. When the humidity inside the storehouse is too high, dry sawdust or quicklime; when the humidity is low, sprinkle water, wet sawdust, or wet grass curtains.
1.5.5 Gas composition When using modulating storage, care must be taken to control the concentration of carbon dioxide and carbon dioxide. The use of 0.01-0.02mm thick polyethylene film bag sealed in single fruit, will not occur black skin and carbon dioxide poisoning phenomenon, has a very good storage effect.
1.5.6 Appropriate ventilation The golden pear must have sufficient ventilation during storage. Ventilation can take the heat load in the warehouse, eliminate the harmful gases such as ethylene, ethanol and carbon dioxide produced in the process of physiological metabolism of the fruit, supplement the appropriate oxygen, and prevent the temperature in the warehouse from being uneven. In order to prevent large fluctuations in temperature inside the warehouse, ventilation should be carried out when the temperature difference between the inside and outside of the warehouse is minimized.
2. Main storage diseases and prevention
2.1 High CO2 Harm and Low CO2 Damage Golden pear fruit has more water content after harvest, and its fruit has strong physiological activity and sensitivity to carbon dioxide. When pear fruits are stored for a long time in high carbon dioxide and low carbon dioxide environment, high carbon dioxide damage and low carbon dioxide damage occur. The sensitivity of the golden pear fruit to carbon dioxide damage is closely related to its fruit maturity. Unsuitable low temperatures can also increase the incidence of carbon dioxide damage.
The method of controlling high carbon dioxide damage and low oxygen damage is to strictly control the concentration of gas in the storage environment, the carbon dioxide concentration is maintained below 3%, and carbon dioxide is between 5% and 8%.
2.2 Cold damage and frost damage test studies have shown that the golden pear freezing point is -2.9 ~ -3.1 °C, can withstand 0 °C low temperature storage, if the temperature is low or lower than -5 °C in the transport, the fruit will gradually freeze the water. Rapid cooling when entering the warehouse can easily cause the black heart of the fruit, which is also a kind of cold injury.
2.3 peel browning gold pear peel crispy; phenolic content and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were higher than other parts. During the storage and transportation of golden pear, the browning at the fruit spot gradually deepened and expanded. The increase of tissue membrane permeability and the disruption of regional distribution caused by dehydration and membrane lipid peroxidation of peel resulted in the browning of the peel of the gold pear.
The following points should be taken into consideration when controlling the browning of golden pear peels: 1 Appropriate late mining to improve fruit maturity; 2 Low-temperature storage to reduce moisture loss from the peel: 3 Pre-harvest calcium injection or post-harvest calcium soaking; 4 Pre-harvest field bagging; After the single fruit packaging film bag storage; 5 to avoid damage to the branches and leaves, bags, injury, mechanical injury.

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