Frost damage type and control of fruit trees

November 06, 2019

Most of the fruit tree cultivation in China is still planted in open fields, and is greatly affected by natural factors. During the winter, long periods of low temperature, or due to abnormally low temperatures and sudden increases in temperature, are likely to cause the occurrence of frost damage, which is not conducive to the high yield and stability of fruit trees. Measures should be taken to ensure the safety of winter fruit trees.

The type of frost damage in fruit trees. One is the tender twigs. The growth of young shoots that have grown late and are immature is not sufficient, and their protective tissues are not well developed, and they are prone to freeze injury and death. The second is freezing damage to branches. The normal development of the branches, although the cold resistance than the strong twigs, the temperature will also occur when the cold is too cold. Some shoots did not appear to change in appearance, but they germinated late, and the leaves were thin or deformed. The growth was not normal. The xylem was cut open and the color was browned, followed by the formation of a black heart, which was a freeze injury. The third is freezing of branches. Due to the subsidence or cracking of the cortex of frozen limbs, the inside is darkened by browning and the tissue is dead. In severe cases, large branches also died one after another. The fourth is freeze damage to roots and stems. The rhizomes refer to the dry roots, and the rhizomes of the rhizomes are darkened and died after freezing, and the roots occur at the top, while the heavy circles form the black rings and surround the dry period, and the whole plant dies. The fifth is root freezing injury. In underground roots, freezing damage is not easily detected, but it seriously affects the growth of the aboveground parts. The phenomenon of budding late or irregular in the spring, or dry shrinkage after putting the leaves. After the root was shaved, it was found that the outer skin became brown, and the cortex was separated from the xylem and even fell off. In the early spring, flower buds are released from dormancy early. When the temperature rises in spring and frost occurs again, the flower buds suffer freezing injury. In severe cases, all flower buds were frozen and died. Lighter, the internal organization becomes brown, which causes the flowering of the flowering plant to be slow or deformed, which affects the pollination and the result, resulting in serious reduction of production.

Fruit tree antifreeze measures. One is the cultivation of fruit trees. In winter, a 20-25 cm thick soil layer can be cultivated around the tree tray to protect the tree. However, the soil should not be taken from the tree tray to prevent the root system from being exposed to freezing damage. The soil should be dry and fine. When the temperature rises in the early spring next year, if the temperature in the cold-proof soil layer is higher than 10°C, it should be removed in time. The first time it is half-buried, the second time it is completely removed. The second is the trunk freeze protection. 1 part of quicklime, 6 kg of water, 1 kg of lime sulfur stock solution or 1 kg of sulfur, and a little salt and oil to make white coating agent and white trunk. You can also use straw to wrap the trunk to help the fruit trees stay cold for the winter. The third is the tree canopy cold. For saplings and debilitated trees, the canopy can be covered with rice straw or film to protect the tree. For fruit trees growing on a loquat, the branches are bundled into bundles and slowly pressed back to the ground, covered with soil and cold, with a thickness of about 20 cm. For fruit trees with good tree vigor and combining pruning in the winter tube, the weak branches, dead branches, branches and branches, and late shoots can be cut off, which can enhance the accumulation of nutrients in the tree and ensure the safe wintering of fruit trees. The fourth is snow cold weather. When snow falls, it is necessary to shake the snow off the tree in time to avoid breaking the branches after snowfall. Do not use bamboo sticks to beat snow, damage branches and leaves, cause wounds and reduce cold resistance. The snow around the tree tray should be promptly opened and launched outside the park. The early evening of heavy snow should be in the park, with 6 piles of smoke per acre of orchard, until the next day after the sun comes out, stop smoking at around 8 o'clock, and for 2-3 consecutive nights, there is a good cold and defense. The effect of frost. Fifth, spray plant growth regulators. Extensive use of 802 sprayed fruit trees can increase the body's metabolism in the winter, regulate tree growth, promote rooting, increase fruit sugar content and coloring degree, and can improve the frost resistance of fruit trees. Sixth, after the fruit trees are frozen, the thin organic manure after decomposing should be chased in early spring, and the dead shoots or dead parts of the shoots should be cut off after germination so that the fruit trees can quickly restore the tree vigor.

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