First, the body temperature of 38 Â°C - 39.2 Â°C, small calves, excited cattle or cows exposed to high temperatures up to 39.5 Â°C body temperature or higher, if beyond this range are considered abnormal. Fever can be divided into missed heat, remittent fever, intermittent fever, relapsing fever, the missed heat is once the body temperature rises, that is, high temperature maintains for several days or more, remittent fever is the temperature fluctuations, and there is a larger night and night Changes in up and down (in the range of 1.0Â°C to 2.0Â°C), but not lower than the normal range; Intermittent heat is sometimes returned to the normal temperature range within one day, and will be repeated before the next day One day's temperature pattern, relapsing fever is characterized by a few days of normal fever on a day or a few days later, and then it warms up again. Fever is the body's means of destroying microorganisms and triggering protective defense mechanisms and should not be overshadowed by anti-inflammatory or antipyretic drugs. Second, the normal pulse rate of pulse rate into cattle is 60-80 beats/minute, and calf is 72-100 beats/minute. A variety of environmental factors and the state of the cow (exercise, intake, etc.) can affect the pulse rate. Hyperthermia, metabolic, cardiac organic, respiratory, painful, and toxemia all cause tachycardia, hunger, pituitary tumors, vagal indigestion, etc., can cause bradycardia, pulse rate, heart sound, heart rhythm and Changes in intensity can also indicate cardiac metabolic diseases. Third, the normal respiratory rate when the breathing frequency becomes a cow is 18 - 28 beats / min, Yak is 20 - 40 beats / min. The number and depth of normal breathing are affected by a variety of environmental factors (temperature, etc.) and the state of the cow (exercise, etc.). The number, depth, and characteristics of breathing can be used as a basis for various diseases. The depth of breathing during excitement, exercise, and hypoxia increases. Metabolic acidosis leads to increased depth and frequency of breathing; breathing becomes superficial when chest, ankle, and anterior abdomen are painful; bovine normal breathing should be thoraco-abdominal, peritonitis and abdominal distension, abdominal pain, etc. interfere with abdominal involvement in breathing Exercise causes chest breathing and abdominal breathing occurs in the same chest and lung disorders. Fourth, the digestive system physiological indicators healthy rumen peristalsis of cattle about 1 - 3 times per minute, rumen content pH 5.0 - 8.1, generally 6 - 6.8, ruminating 6-8 times per day and night, each about 4 - 50 minutes, chewing more than 20 times per mouth, 17 to 20 times per minute helium.
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