Aquaculture antifreeze and antifreeze technology

August 13, 2020

First, fish antifreeze technical measures

(I) Technical points for prevention and treatment of fish cold injury:

Water-based fish frostbite is a phenomenon in which fishes cause skin necrosis in long-term low-temperature (≤0°C) water bodies, swollen ends of cocoon, and dehydration of ice crystals in muscle tissue. The main measures:

(1) Keep the culture water level above 1.5m. (2) The operation of pulling, transporting, and diverting ponds is not carried out in freezing or rain and snow conditions at temperatures below 2°C. (3) Quanchiposa salt, 1000-1500g per mu. (4) The time for keeping the product fish is reduced as much as possible. The fish in the dry pond should be sold as soon as possible. (5) At noon when the weather is fine, the depth of 1 meter per mu is 450 g of copper sulphate and 50 mg of the mixed killing king (avermectin). Use it again every 4-5 days. (6) At noon when the weather is fine, feed a multi-dimensional or immuno-enhancing agent to enhance the fish's ability to resist cold.

(2) Technical points of water quality regulation in aquaculture water areas after the occurrence of a frost disaster:

1. The storage fish should be caught and sold in time, and the sun pool in empty ponds should be thoroughly sterilized. According to its own breeding mode, water should be added, the ponds should be filled with water for about 1m, and the fish ponds should be filled with water for about 1.5m to prepare for spring restocking. .

2. Ponds with ponds or adult fish to be kept in stock ponds should be strengthened in management, and the dead fish in the water body should be removed in time to remove the impurities in the water body and avoid water quality deterioration. Try to reduce the net to avoid mechanical damage to the fish. Adhere to the early, middle and evening patrol ponds and timely refill the new water to adjust the water level. The water depth is maintained at more than 1.5m, and the transparency is maintained at about 30cm. 50kg of quicklime Quanchiposa per acre. As the temperature rises, observe the fish's activity and appropriate fertilizer. If the water quality is slim, appropriate amount of nitrogen fertilizer is applied, and the aerator is opened at the right time, the nutrient components of sediment sediment will be released, which will reduce the ammonia nitrogen and fat water, and will regulate the water quality.

(III) Prevention and Control Techniques of Fish Bacterosis in Frozen Disasters:

1. Carefully pull the net, try to use a small net and nylon net to pull the net, the tie box is best made of vinylon or nylon, hanging time is not easy to exceed 8 hours.

2. Before the fish species are stocked, thoroughly clear ponds and disinfect the ponds with quicklime, and use 120kg quick lime per acre pond. After the water is poured, Quanchiposa will reduce the occurrence of this disease.

3, fish stocking as far as possible to avoid the cold weather, so as not to fish frostbite, in the process of fishing and transport and stocking operations should be brisk, as far as possible to avoid mechanical damage to the fish.

4. Fish ponds should be soaked in 4% salt for 10 minutes or 20mg/L potassium permanganate for 10 minutes before stocking.

5, Quanchiposa drugs: (1) can be treated with dibromohydantoin, water depth of 1m per mu. With dibromohydantoin (effective content of 10%) 200g, Quanhua Quanchiposa, used in conjunction 2-3 days. (2) Make pool water 8 mg/L with salt and baking soda (1:1). (3) Cascade King 0.3mg/L or chlorine dioxide 0.5mg/L Quanchiposa.

Second, Tilapia antifreeze technical measures

(I) Main points of heat preservation technology

1. In the north of the pond, a 0.3-0.5m windshield covered with nylon film or straw is constructed to block the north wind from blowing directly onto the surface of the pond, thus slowing down the alternation of pool water and slowing down the pool water.

2. Smaller ponds or ponds used for parent and fingerling cultivation can be covered in plastic pools. An aerator is placed in the pool. When the temperature in the greenhouse is too low, charcoal can be heated in the shed to increase the temperature. Conditions can be used in the bottom of the pond with hot water pipes to inject hot water or hot spring water, so that the formation of heat islands at the bottom of the pond, is conducive to fish overwintering.

3. For large-scale adult fish breeding ponds, a concentrated overwintering method can be adopted, and the fish can accumulate over winter by separating and maintaining the local waters of the pond.

4. Net cage insulation: The cage can be sunk as far as possible to keep the water depth below 2m.

(b) Restoring production techniques

1. When the climate is improved, the ponds and ponds should be cleaned as soon as possible and disinfected with quicklime to remove excessive silt. After the temperature has risen, first fill the water and put appropriate amount of mixed fish species such as oysters and clams.

2. When releasing early seedlings, care should be taken to reduce the stocking density and feed high-quality compound feeds to ensure that a certain amount of commercial fish is put on the market in the first half of the year.

3. For ponds with less dead fish phenomenon, due to long-term rainy weather and large amount of groundwater for thermal insulation, it is necessary to pay close attention to changes in water quality, keep the water fresh, and find that the water quality is acidic, and use appropriate amount of quicklime to transfer water to Quanchiposa. , adjust the acidity, the dosage is 10mg/L.

4. Strengthen day-to-day management and patrol ponds, find sick fish and dead fish to fish out in time to prevent the occurrence and rapid spread of hydromycosis caused by long-term low-temperature frostbite, and use iodine preparations to treat hydromycosis caused by low temperatures.

Fourth, crab antifreeze technical measures

(I) Main points of product crab management technology

1. The ice-breaking merchandise crab has a large reserve density, and the temperature after the snow is low, so it is difficult to manage the crabs. By playing ice eyes or breaking ice, one can observe whether there is water shortage and lack of oxygen in the wintering pool, on the other hand, it can make some harmful gases in the water escape. When the water is deficient in oxygen (less than 1.8 mg/L), aquatic insects such as sword blisters and pine borers can be seen near the ice eyes, and oxygenation measures can be taken in time according to observed conditions.

2. 85% oxygen in oxygenated water comes from phytoplankton photosynthetic oxygenation, and a small part comes from air incorporation and replenishment.

(1) Keep clear ice over the winter pool should be frozen with clear ice, if it is frozen into black ice, it should be broken after re-icing to ensure that the clear ice area accounts for more than 50%. After snow, the snow is removed in time, and the area of ​​clear snow accounts for more than 80% of the pond area. If the ice or snow is not timely, resulting in insufficient light under the ice, blocking photosynthesis, easy to cause hypoxia.

(2) The mechanical oxygenation can be continuously activated for 2 to 3 hours by 1.5 to 3.0 kilowatts of aerators for oxygenation. In the case of lack of oxygen and lack of water in the wintering pool, the water pump can also be used to increase oxygen. It is also possible to use air bottles or air pumps to press air into the water for oxygenation.

(3) In the case of chemical oxygenation emergency, oxygen can be increased by using chemical agents such as Zeng Yang Ling.

3. Make sure that the depth of water in wintering pool is more than 0.8m. If it is lower than this number, it should be filled with water at any time. The replenishment water temperature should exceed 4°C.

4. It can be caught in a dry pool above 0°C, and should not be caught below 0°C. It can be fed into the crab pool. The specific method of operation: During the day, the dry pool captures crabs, and in the evening, the crab pools return water.

(B) Management Techniques of Crabs and Crabs

1. The water level control should always check if there is any leakage in the overwintering pool. The crab pool cannot be in a low water level for a long time. The wintering pond must maintain a water depth of about 1.5m. The crabs will not be frozen and frozen to death only in deeper water bodies. Otherwise, although hidden in caves or mud, crabs are still exposed to the air and will be frozen or frozen. When the water level is found to be falling, it is necessary to add water in time, and the temperature difference of the incoming water does not exceed 2°C.

2. After feeding the crabs, the food basically stopped feeding. When the ice melts, the amount of crab activity increases, and attention is paid to maintaining fresh water quality. When the water temperature rises to about 5°C, appropriate animal feeds containing high fat and protein, cooked wheat grains, and corn are added.

3. The day-to-day management must be performed by a special person to inspect the ponds. Ice-covered ponds must be crushed in a timely manner to reduce the number of disturbing crabs, such as boat trips and fishing, so as to prevent crabs from being snarled around and causing injuries and exhaustion.

(3) Key points for post-disaster crab production

1. Before the ponds are cleared, the ponds must be cleaned. After the snow ponds are reinforced, the ponds must be reinforced to remove excess silt. About 15 days before the stocking of the crabs, the ponds were thoroughly cleared. There were two methods for clearing ponds: dry method and clear water method. General dry clearing pool with lime 75kg per acre, Quanchiposa after melting. The water clearing pond is used only when the pool water cannot be discharged mostly. The specific amount can be controlled flexibly according to the depth of the pool water, and it can ensure that the enemy can kill the water.

2. Reinforced anti-escape facilities shall be built around the crab ponds with strong anti-escape facilities to prevent crabs from escaping. The inner wall of the anti-escape facilities should be smooth, plastic film, iron plate, aluminum plate, etc. are commonly used.

3. Antifreeze plants have been planted with aquatic plants such as Elodea. To prevent freezing of aquatic plants, the specific method is to ensure that the water level is higher than that of aquatic plants and the ice layer is above the aquatic plants.

4. When the temperature of the refrigerated crab species is temporarily below 0°C, or when it is snowy, no crab species can be caught, transported, or stocked to prevent frostbite from frostbite. Wait for the weather to warm up, and when the temperature is above 5°C, perform the relevant operations for crab species.

Fifth, the harmless treatment of dead fish and ponds

In order to prevent frostbite, improper treatment of dead fish will cause harm to public environmental sanitation and aquaculture water bodies, and they need to be dealt with in a timely manner. Specific measures are as follows:

1. Clear fishing The timely removal of dead fish in water bodies and sediments prevents the breeding of pathogens and causes aquaculture water pollution.

2, deep-buried dead fish can be concentrated after deep processing. Buried should be chosen away from water, rivers, aquaculture and residential areas. When burial, first lay 2cm thick lime in the bottom of the pit, then place the dead fish dead body in the pit, sprinkle a layer of quicklime, and finally cover it with soil, and keep the same with the surrounding, the thickness of the covering soil should be not less than 0.5m; if there is any suspicion In case of epidemics or other abnormal conditions, the dead fish must be burned with oil and then covered with a layer of soil more than 1.5m thick. The filling should not be too solid, so as to prevent the production of gas from the rot and cause the emergence of air bubbles and liquid leakage. Clear identities should be set after burial.

3. Fermented frozen fish can be fermented in locations away from water sources, rivers, and breeding areas. First, dig a fermentation pit, use a plastic film as the lining of the land, place the dead fish in the pit, seal it with a plastic film, cover it with soil, and use it as an agricultural fertilizer after fermentation.

4. Incineration of places where conditions permit can be treated by burning in a crematorium.

5. Water body disinfection and frostbite The dead fish breeding water body must be disinfected if it needs to be discharged, and it can be discharged into natural waters after reaching the national wastewater discharge standard. Disinfection treatment method: Use bleaching powder to splash at the amount of 20g/m3.

6, tool disinfection related to salvaging, transportation, handling and other processing links to avoid spillage, and need to use bleaching powder on the salvage, transport and unloading tools sterilization.

Sixth, do a good job in restoring production after the disaster

1. Formulate a plan for the restoration of production In order to grasp the initiative of production and disaster relief, it is required three mornings: "Early plan, early deployment, and early start-up" to resume production as soon as possible. Our focus is on “four guarantees”: “keeping seedlings, guaranteeing production, ensuring supply, and ensuring safety.”

2. Make up new breeds and numbers of breeding, do a good job of raising fish species or new varieties of nesting summer fish species, and must do a good job of quarantine of fish species. Summer fish stocks are now ready to purchase.

3. Intensify the cultivation of seedlings and parents, and do well in the mobilization of tightly-deficient fish species. In addition to strengthening the cultivation of already-cultivated seedlings, we must do a good job of supplying the shortage of seedlings: nurturing parents.

4. Do a good job in the technical service of restoring production. Each fishery technical instructor must enter the village and enter the village to help the farmers analyze the disaster situation, carry out scientific and technological services, help the farmers to resume production, and after the stocking is done, “Four and Five Implementations”. As the core production plan, one year of production knows well.

5, to strengthen the disease monitoring and prevention and control work First, we must do a good job in pond cleaning. It is strictly prohibited to litter the dead fish, dead crabs, and dead shrimp. The second is that foreign seeds must be sterilized. The best local adjustment. The third is to increase the intensity of disease surveillance, strengthen disease detection and forecasting, and find timely reports of diseases.

6. Pay close attention to the restoration of basic aquaculture facilities At the same time when managing the sheds, power supply, and restoration of the fishery facilities, the key is to do a good job in reforming the aquaculture water body. In particular, the transformation of the pond has reached a moment of utmost urgency. We must seize the opportunity to count out the areas and investment limits of aging ponds, formulate pond renovation plans, screen ponds for remodeling mechanical facilities, and set up pond reconstruction engineering teams to improve the basic conditions of ponds.

7. Strengthen management We must do a good job in the management of patrol ponds, strengthen the monitoring and reporting of diseases, strengthen disinfection management, do a good job of storing quarantine materials and strengthening feed management. If it is found that the water body is discolored and odorized, it means that the water quality has deteriorated and new water needs to be replaced in time. The dead fish should be picked up promptly, buried deep in the pit, added with lime or bleach, and harmlessly treated.

The professional aquaculture association implements "five priorities and five unifications" (ie, giving priority to the supply of high-quality seedlings, giving priority to providing breeding techniques, giving priority to disease prevention and control services, giving priority to providing production and sales information, giving priority to providing loan funds, and uniform seedlings and uniform standards. Breeding technology, unified supply and marketing channels, unified trademarks, uniform prices).

8, to protect the supply, do a good job of epidemic prevention material reserves and supply of low temperature prone to water blight, small melon worms and bacterial diseases, to do a good job of water quality improvement control agents, disinfectants and insecticidal, fungicidal, treatment of bacterial diseases, etc. The prevention and treatment of epidemic prevention materials, such as bleaching powder, quicklime, iodine preparations, potassium permanganate, and some traditional Chinese herbs and probiotics that regulate and kill pathogens.

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